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What is Cloud Computing | Where is it | How cloud computing works

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What is cloud computing?

The term cloud computing is generally used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet. Large clouds, predominant today, often have functions distributed over multiple locations from central servers.

Cloud computing metaphor: the group of networked elements providing services need not be individually addressed or managed by users; instead, the entire provider-managed suite of hardware and software can be thought of as an amorphous cloud.

Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale.

Advocates of public and hybrid clouds note that cloud computing allows companies to avoid or minimize up-front IT infrastructure costs.

Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and that it enables IT teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable demand, providing the burst computing capability: high computing power at certain periods of peak demand.

Cloud providers typically use a "pay-as-you-go" model, which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud-pricing models.

The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing.By 2019, Linux was the most widely used operating system, including in Microsoft's offerings and is thus described as dominant.

History.Cloud computing was popularized with Amazon.com releasing its Elastic Compute Cloud product in 2006.References to the phrase "cloud computing" appeared as early as 1996, with the first known mention in a Compaq internal document.The cloud symbol was used to represent networks of computing equipment in the original ARPANET (The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ) by as early as 1977, and the CSNET (The Computer Science Network) by 1981 — both predecessors to the Internet itself.

The word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics. With this simplification, the implication is that the specifics of how the end points of a network are connected are not relevant for the purposes of understanding the diagram.

The goal of cloud computing is to allow users to take benefit from all of these technologies, without the need for deep knowledge about or expertise with each one of them. The cloud aims to cut costs, and helps the users focus on their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles.

VIRTUALIZATION - The main enabling technology for cloud computing. Virtualization software separates a physical computing device into one or more "virtual" devices, each of which can be easily used and managed to perform computing tasks. With operating system–level virtualization essentially creating a scalable system of multiple independent computing devices, idle computing resources can be allocated and used more efficiently.

Virtualization provides:the agility required to speed up IT operations reduces cost by increasing infrastructure utilization autonomic computing automates the process through which the user can provision resources on-demand by minimizing user involvement reduces the possibility of human errors

Characteristics The National Institute of Standards and Technology's definition of cloud computing identifies "five essential characteristics":

1.On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage

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